In the post crisis era, made in China faces five m

2022-09-23
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In the post crisis era, made in China faces five major weaknesses. Most enterprises are large but not strong.

since the 1990s, China's manufacturing industry has achieved considerable development. According to the report released by the National Bureau of statistics, with the strengthening of industrial infrastructure and the continuous expansion of production capacity, China has gradually become a world manufacturing power. Among the 22 industrial categories, China's manufacturing industry ranks first in the world in terms of the proportion of 7 categories, and 15 categories rank in the top three. Among the total export products of China's manufacturing industry, high-tech products have exceeded 40%, which indicates that China has been moving towards a global configuration manufacturing center

although the progress of China's manufacturing industry has attracted worldwide attention, the latest analysis report of China's top 500 manufacturing enterprises in 2010 released by the China Enterprise Federation still shows that under the impact of the financial crisis, China's manufacturing industry faces five major weaknesses in labor productivity, R & D investment, energy consumption, wage costs and management, which restrict the transformation and upgrading development of China's manufacturing enterprises

low labor productivity

the data shows that the core problem of China's manufacturing industry under the rapid growth cannot be concealed is the low labor productivity and added value. At present, China's manufacturing labor productivity is about 4% of that of the United States 38%, 4% in Japan 37% and 5% in Germany 56%。 There is still a big gap between China's manufacturing industry and developed countries in terms of quality

from the contribution coefficient of intermediate input, the intermediate input of one unit value in developed countries can roughly get one unit or more of newly created value, while China can only get 0 56 units of newly created value. The rate of added value is another comprehensive index to measure the input-output benefits of an economy. At present, the value-added rate of China's manufacturing industry is only 26%, which is 23, 22 and 11 percentage points lower than that of the United States, Japan and Germany respectively. Even compared with other developing countries, the value-added level of China's manufacturing industry is still lower than that of Latin America and the Caribbean and the developing regions of Western Asia and Europe

from the perspective of the overall profit return rate of the industry, the manufacturing industry in the United States, Japan and Germany is an industry with high profit rate. In recent years, although the proportion of U.S. manufacturing industry has decreased, the output value of U.S. manufacturing industry still accounts for 16% of GDP, and manufacturing products account for 72% of all U.S. exports. In contrast, in recent years, the profit margin and return on capital of China's manufacturing industry have decreased year by year. Since October, 2008, the profit growth rate of domestic manufacturing industry has fallen to a certain extent compared with the same period in 2007. The decline of enterprise profits indicates that the profitability of enterprises is weakened, and the production and operation situation tends to be severe

the China Enterprise Confederation believes that the characteristics of the development of China's manufacturing industry are summarized as two high and one low: that is, the manufacturing industry has a high growth rate and a high proportion of GDP; The added value of manufacturing per capita is low. The current situation of "two high and one low" shows that there is still much room for the development of China's manufacturing industry on the one hand, and that the structural contradictions faced by China's manufacturing industry in the next step will be a prominent constraint

R & D investment has always been insufficient

the R & D investment of large international companies generally accounts for about 5% of sales revenue, even up to 10%-15%. Among Chinese enterprises, except Huawei and other rare enterprises, the vast majority of enterprises do not reach the level of 5%

the fundamental reason why China's manufacturing industry has been at the low end of the international industrial chain for a long time is that the technological innovation ability of the manufacturing industry is still weak, and there are few core technologies and patents with independent intellectual property rights. Taking the integrated circuit, the core component in the field of information industry, as an example, the number of patents applied for in China only accounts for 1 in the world 74%。 The largest number of integrated circuit patents applied for in China is Japanese enterprises, accounting for 43 5%, followed by the United States, accounting for 15 8%, and South Korea, which ranks third, accounts for 13 9%, while domestic enterprises applied for only 8%. The lack of innovation capability restricts manufacturing enterprises from rapidly improving product added value and industrial competitiveness

the root cause of the above problems is that China's investment in R & D funds is at a low level in the world, which is far from developed countries. In the world, the proportion of R & D expenditure of large companies in sales revenue is generally about 5%, or even 10% - 15%. In China, except for Huawei and other rare enterprises, the vast majority of enterprises can not reach the level of 5%. Even from the perspective of China's top 500 manufacturing enterprises, which are the essence of China's manufacturing enterprises, the proportion of R & D investment of China's top 500 manufacturing enterprises was 1 respectively in 88%、2 . 29%、2 . 41%、2 . 13%、1 . 95%、2.03%。

especially in recent years, R & D investment has reached 2 After the peak of 41%, it turned around and hovered around 2%, less than half of the 5% R & D level of major international companies. The serious shortage of funds has greatly reduced the effectiveness of technology introduction. Therefore, China's industrial technology can not effectively assist the improvement and improvement of enterprises' processing capacity, and it is also difficult to catch up with the transfer of foreign enterprises' advanced technology for digestion, absorption, imitation and innovation

The so-called big enterprise disease refers to the characteristics of overstaffing, multiple leadership and brain drain, and overstaffing is the basic feature of big enterprise disease

after years of follow-up investigation on Chinese manufacturing enterprises, the China Enterprise Confederation found that many enterprises entering the top 500 manufacturing enterprises in China have large enterprise diseases to varying degrees. It is manifested as follows: first, high fever. The rapid growth of enterprises makes managers hot headed and lack calm; Second, obesity, the expansion of enterprise organizational structure, the increase of management levels, and the effectiveness of decision-making and implementation

Kelon Group, once a banner of Chinese township enterprises, has also suffered losses in its operations in recent years. Xutiefeng, President of Kelon, once said without hesitation that although the production and sales of Kelon have continued to grow in recent years, there have been signs of crisis: the growth rate has slowed down and the profitability has declined. After the scale of enterprises is large, they will encounter a problem of large enterprise disease, that is, too much internal friction, etc

high energy consumption projects rebound

according to the figures of the Ministry of industry and information technology, since 2009, illegal construction and blind expansion of production have aggravated the contradiction of overcapacity. The national cement investment increased by more than 78% year-on-year. At present, more than 200 cement production lines are under construction, and the new production capacity exceeds 200 million tons. The excess capacity of China's shipbuilding industry is about 16million DWT, accounting for about 1/4 of the total capacity

behind the rapid development of China's manufacturing industry, the vast majority of enterprises are large but not strong, and the consumption and waste of energy and excessive pollution emissions have reached an unprecedented level. The analysis of the China Federation of enterprises pointed out that since the autumn of 2008, due to the objective reality of fighting the international financial crisis and ensuring economic growth rate, high energy consumption projects in various regions have rebounded

the rebound of high energy consumption projects resulted in only 3% of the energy conservation and emission reduction targets in 2009 61%, which failed to reach the level of 5% in 2007 and 2008, and even the five-year average of 4%. What's more, in the first quarter of 2010, due to the rapid growth of high energy consuming industries and the resurgence of some backward production capacity, the national unit GDP energy consumption did not decline, but increased. This makes it more difficult to achieve the five-year consumption reduction goal

wages drive up costs

a recent survey by the China entrepreneur survey system shows that the main difficulties encountered in the current business development are the rise in labor costs and the rise in energy and raw material costs, which rank first and second according to the proportion of business operators

the first of the three major factors that have an important impact on the cost of manufacturing is labor wages. Especially after the promulgation of the labor contract law in 2008 and the implementation of strict minimum wage standards, the increase of labor costs is even more inevitable

A Research Report of an American consulting company shows that China's labor cost has been higher than that of other Asian countries, excluding seven countries in time. The average labor cost in China's coastal areas is 1 per hour 08 US dollars, 0 in inland provinces Eight dollars. India ranks seventh at 0 per hour 51 dollars, the lowest labor cost is Bangladesh, the price is only one fifth of Shanghai and Suzhou

since 2010, the rising wage level has played a more obvious role in promoting costs. More than a dozen provinces have raised the minimum wage standard one after another, with the adjustment range of more than 10%, and some provinces have exceeded 20%. Some overseas enterprises such as Foxconn and Honda have also taken action to raise wages, with an average increase of 10% - 20%. It is predicted that due to the shortage of domestic labor and the enhancement of workers' awareness of self-protection, domestic wages will increase by double digits this year

According to the relevant analysis, the increase of wages is a kind of debt repayment for the low income of these workers, and it is an inevitable requirement for the sustainable development of the manufacturing industry. But at the same time, we must see that in the case of China's relatively slow industrial upgrading and low added value of the manufacturing industry, raising wages has actually increased the cost pressure of enterprises and eroded the profits of enterprises to a certain extent. Therefore, the rise of wage level objectively requires enterprises to bid farewell to the low-cost factors of labor that they relied on in the past, speed up the pace of transformation and upgrading, and change the development mode, so as to turn pressure into power and turn bad things into good things

viewpoint

expert: manufacturing enterprise service is an important development direction

at present, with the diversification and upgrading of consumer demand, the integration and development between modern manufacturing and producer services is deepening. This integration is more manifested in the penetration of the service industry into the manufacturing industry. Experts believe that the service-oriented manufacturing enterprise is an important development direction of manufacturing enterprises that have a considerable scale and strength

at present, there are three main development paths and typical models:

develop the service industry relying on manufacturing. Therefore, the critical point of this change in many traditional manufacturing industries is the innovation of materials. Enterprises integrate their original businesses through the development of producer services, form new business growth points, and enhance the overall competitiveness of enterprises through the integration and development of industries. Among many famous manufacturing enterprises in the United States, the service industry accounts for an increasing proportion of enterprise income and profits. It is difficult to judge whether it is a manufacturing enterprise or a service enterprise. Typical representatives are American General Electric Company, Hewlett Packard Company, Cisco and other enterprises. Therefore, manufacturing enterprises can rely on the manufacturing industry to actively develop productive services with rich profits and broad prospects, such as business finance, consumer finance, information technology, so as to integrate the manufacturing function and service function of enterprises, and greatly enhance market competitiveness

in addition, some large-scale traditional manufacturing enterprises in the world are developing from selling products to providing services and complete sets of solutions. The operation management extends from the manufacturing field to the service field, and the service business has become a new growth point and profit source. For example, IBM, as a multinational company in the information industry, made a strategic transformation from hardware to software and service industry in the 1990s. The goals of cutting process sensing detection of electronic universal experimental machine include cutting force and its changes in the cutting process, chattering in the cutting process, contact between the tool and the workpiece, chip state during cutting, and identification of the cutting process. Facts have proved that it has achieved great success

with the gradual rise of human costs and the development and changes of the competitive environment, plus

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